Research Question/Objectives: All Canadian provinces have funded pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) universal immunization programs since 2006. Surveillance data from Ontario has shown corresponding declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcus is one of the most common causes of otitis media, but little information is available on incidence rates and impact of the PCV program.
Myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a tiny slit is made in the tympanic membrane to release the buildup of fluid associated with otitis media with effusion (OME). Indications for this procedure have remained consistent since the 1990’s, and this study aims to investigate the rates in Ontario from 1991 to 2016.
The hypothesis is that the conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (both PCV7 and PCV13) have decreased the rates of complicated or recurrent acute otitis media (AOM), leading to less chronic otitis media and hospitalized mastoiditis and therefore the rates of subsequent myringotomy on a population wide basis will have declined since 1996.
- To demonstrate using retrospective analyses of administrative databases that the incidence rates of otitis media with effusion, antibiotic use, mastoiditis and myringotomy declined in Ontario from 1991 to 2016 coinciding temporally with the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs).
- To demonstrate that total billing costs associated with otitis media with effusion (OME), antibiotics use, mastoiditis and myringotomy declined during the same time period.
Availability of Results: study in progress