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Trends in site of death and healthcare utilization at the end of life: a population-based cohort study


Background — High rates of healthcare utilization at the end of life may be a marker of care that does not align with patient-stated preferences. We sought to describe trends in end-of-life care and factors associated with dying in hospital.

Methods — We conducted a population-level retrospective cohort study of adult decedents in Ontario between Apr. 1, 2004, and Mar. 31, 2015, using linked administrative data sets, including the Office of the Registrar General for Deaths database, the hospital Discharge Abstract Database, the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and physicians’ billing claims (Ontario Health Insurance Plan). The primary outcome was place of death. To determine healthcare utilization and healthcare costs during the 6 months before death, we also identified admissions to hospital and to the intensive care unit, emergency department visits, and receipt of mechanical ventilation and palliative care.

Results — In the last 6 months of life, 77.3% of 962 462 decedents presented to an emergency department, 68.4% were admitted to hospital, 19.4% were admitted to an intensive care unit, and 13.9% received mechanical ventilation. Forty-five percent of all deaths occurred in hospital, a proportion that declined marginally over time, whereas receipt of palliative care increased during terminal hospital admissions (from 14.0% in fiscal year 2004/05 to 29.3% in 2014/15, p < 0.001) and in the last 6 months of life (from 28.1% in 2004/05 to 57.7% in 2014/15, p < 0.001). The proportion of decedents who presented to the emergency department, were admitted to hospital or were admitted to the intensive care unit in the last 6 months of life did not change over 11 years. The mean total healthcare costs in the last 6 months of life were highest among those dying in hospital, with most costs attributable to inpatient medical care.

Interpretation — Healthcare utilization in the last 6 months of life was substantial and did not decrease over time. It is possible that increased capacity for palliative, hospice and home care at the end of life may help to better align health system resources with the preferences of most patients, a topic that should be explored in future studies.



Hill AD, Stukel TA, Fu L, Scales DC, Laupacis A, Rubenfeld GD, Wunsch H, Downar J, Rockwood K, Heyland DK, Sinha SK, Zimmermann C, Gandhi S, Myers J, Ross HJ, Kozak JF, Berry S, Dev SP, La Delfa I, Fowler RA. CMAJ Open. 2019; 7(2):306-15. Epub 2019 Apr 26. .

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