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Risk of cesarean delivery among people with inflammatory bowel disease according to disease characteristics: a population-based study


Objective — It is unclear if use of cesarean delivery in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is guideline-concordant. We compared the odds of cesarean delivery among primiparous individuals with IBD versus without, overall and by disease characteristics, as well as time to subsequent delivery.

Methods — Retrospective matched population-based cohort study between 1 April 1994 and 31 March 2020. Primiparous individuals aged 15–55 years with IBD were matched to those without on age, year, hospital, and number of newborns delivered. Primary outcome was cesarean delivery versus vaginal delivery. Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds of cesarean delivery among individuals with and without IBD as a binary exposure, and a categorical exposure based on IBD-related indications for cesarean delivery. Time to subsequent delivery was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model.

Results — We matched 7472 individuals with IBD to 37 360 individuals without (99.02% match rate). Individuals with IBD were categorized as having perianal disease (IBD-PA, n = 764, 10.2%), prior ileo-anal pouch anastomosis (IBD-IPAA, n = 212, 2.8%), or IBD-Other (n = 6496, 86.9%). Cesarean delivery rates were 35.4% in the IBD group versus 30.4% in their controls (adjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34). IBD-IPAA had a cesarean delivery rate of 66.5%, compared to 49.9% in IBD-PA and 32.7% in IBD-Other. There was no significant difference in the rate of subsequent delivery in those with and without IBD (adjusted HR 1.03, 95% CI 1–1.07).

Conclusion — The higher risk of cesarean delivery in people with IBD reflects guideline-concordant use. Individuals with and without IBD were equally likely to have a subsequent delivery with similar timing.



Simpson AN, Sutradhar R, Benchimol EI, Chan WC, Porter J, Moore S, Dossa F, Huang V, Maxwell C, Targownik L, Liu N, Baxter NN. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2024; Apr 15 [Epub ahead of press].

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