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Sex-specific predictors of inpatient rehabilitation outcomes after traumatic brain injury


Objective — To identify sex-specific predictors of inpatient rehabilitation outcomes among patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a population based perspective.

Design — Retrospective cohort study

Setting — Ontario, Canada

Participants — Patients in inpatient rehabilitation for a TBI within one year of acute care discharge between 2008/09 and 2011/12 (N=1,730, 70% male, 30% female).

Interventions — None

Main Outcome Measures — Inpatient rehabilitation length of stay, total Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) score, and motor and cognitive FIM™ ratings at discharge.

Results — Sex, as a covariate in multivariable linear regression models, was not a significant predictor of rehabilitation outcomes. While many of the predictors examined were similar across males and females, sex-specific multivariable models identified some predictors of rehabilitation outcome that are specific for males and females; mechanism of injury (p<.0001) was a significant predictor of functional outcome only among females while comorbidities (p<.0001) was a significant predictor for males only.

Conclusions — Predictors of outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation differed by sex, providing evidence for a sex-specific approach in planning and resource allocation for inpatient rehabilitation services for patients with TBI.



Chan V, Mollayeva T, Ottenbacher K, Colantonio A. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016; 97(5):772-80. Epub 2016 Jan 30.

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