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Predictors of low cervical cancer screening among immigrant women in Ontario, Canada


Background — Disparities in cervical cancer screening are known to exist in Ontario, Canada for foreign-born women. The relative importance of various barriers to screening may vary across ethnic groups. This study aimed to determine how predictors of low cervical cancer screening, reflective of sociodemographics, the healthcare system, and migration, varied by region of origin for Ontario's immigrant women.

Methods — Using a validated billing code algorithm, the researchers determined the proportion of women who were not screened during the three-year period of 2006–2008 among 455,864 identified immigrant women living in Ontario's urban centres. The researchers created eight identical multivariate Poisson models, stratified by eight regions of origin for immigrant women. In these models, the researchers adjusted for various sociodemographic, healthcare-related and migration-related variables. The researchers then used the resulting adjusted relative risks to calculate population-attributable fractions for each variable by region of origin.

Results — Region of origin was not a significant source of effect modification for lack of recent cervical cancer screening. Certain variables were significantly associated with lack of screening across all or nearly all world regions. These consisted of not being in the 35-49 year age group, residence in the lowest-income neighbourhoods, not being in a primary care patient enrolment model, a provider from the same region, and not having a female provider. For all women, the highest population-attributable risk was seen for not having a female provider, with values ranging from 16.8% [95% CI 14.6–19.1%] among women from the Middle East and North Africa to 27.4% [95% CI 26.2–28.6%] for women from East Asia and the Pacific.

Conclusions — To increase screening rates across immigrant groups, efforts should be made to ensure that women have access to a regular source of primary care, and ideally access to a female health professional. Efforts should also be made to increase the enrolment of immigrant women in new primary care patient enrolment models.



Lofters AK, Moineddin R, Hwang SW, Glazier RH. BMC Womens Health. 2011; 11:20. Epub 2011 May 27.

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