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Incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus and association with mortality in childhood solid organ transplant recipients: a population-based study


Background — Precise estimates of the long-term risk of new-onset diabetes and its impact on mortality among transplanted children are not known.

Methods — We conducted a cohort study comparing children undergoing solid organ (kidney, heart, liver, lung and multiple organ) transplant (n = 1020) between 1991 and 2014 with healthy non-transplanted children (n = 7 134 067) using Ontario health administrative data. Outcomes included incidence of diabetes among transplanted and non-transplanted children, the relative hazard of diabetes among solid organ transplant recipients, overall and at specific intervals posttransplant, and mortality among diabetic transplant recipients.

Results — During 56 019 824 person-years of follow-up, the incidence rate of diabetes was 17.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-21] and 2.5 (95% CI 2.5-2.5) per 1000 person-years among transplanted and non-transplanted children, respectively. The transplant cohort had a 9-fold [hazard ratio (HR) 8.9; 95% CI 7.5-10.5] higher hazard of diabetes compared with those not transplanted. Risk was highest within the first year after transplant (HR 20.7; 95% CI 15.9-27.1), and remained elevated even at 5 and 10 years of follow-up. Lung and multiple organ recipients had a 5-fold (HR 5.4; 95% CI 3.0-9.8) higher hazard of developing diabetes compared with kidney transplant recipients. Transplant recipients with diabetes had a three times higher hazard of death compared with those who did not develop diabetes (HR 3.3; 95% CI 2.3-4.8).

Conclusions — The elevated risk of diabetes in transplant recipients persists even after a decade, highlighting the importance of ongoing surveillance. Diabetes after transplantation increases the risk of mortality among childhood transplant recipients.



Chanchlani R, Kim SJ, Dixon SN, Jassal V, Banh T, Borges K, Vasilevska-Ristovska J, Paterson JM, Ng V, Dipchand A, Solomon M, Hebert M, Parekh RS. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019; 34(3):524-31. Epub 2018 Jul 30.