Go to content

Association between periprosthetic joint infection and mortality following primary total hip arthroplasty


Background — Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a dreaded and unpredictable complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). In addition to causing substantial morbidity, PJI may contribute to long-term mortality risk. Our objective was to determine the long-term mortality risk associated with PJI following THA.

Methods — This population-based, retrospective cohort study included adult patients (≥18 years old) in Ontario, Canada, who underwent their first primary elective THA for arthritis between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2021. The primary outcome was death within 10 years after the index THA. Mortality was compared between propensity-score-matched groups (PJI within 1 year after surgery versus no PJI within 1 year after surgery) with use of survival analyses. Patients who died within 1 year after surgery were excluded to avoid immortal time bias.

Results — A total of 175,432 patients (95,883 [54.7%] women) with a mean age (and standard deviation) of 67 ± 11.4 years underwent primary THA during the study period. Of these, 868 patients (0.49%) underwent surgery for a PJI of the replaced joint within 1 year after the index procedure. After matching, patients with a PJI within the first year had a significantly higher 10-year mortality rate than their counterparts (11.4% [94 of 827 patients] versus 2.2% [18 of 827 patients]; absolute risk difference, 9.19% [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.81% to 11.6%]; hazard ratio, 5.49 [95% CI, 3.32 to 9.09]).

Conclusions — PJI within 1 year after surgery is associated with over a fivefold increased risk of mortality within 10 years. The findings of this study underscore the importance of prioritizing efforts related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of PJIs.



Mundi R, Pincus D, Schemitsch E, Ekhtiari S, Paterson JM, Chaudhry H, Leis JA, Redelmeier DA, Ravi B. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2024; May 9 [Epub ahead of print].

View Source

Associated Sites