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The association of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with cardiovascular outcomes in anthracycline-treated patients with cancer


Background — Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are hypothesized to reduce the risk of anthracycline-associated cardiotoxicity.

Objectives — This study sought to determine the association between SGLT2is and cardiovascular disease (CVD) after anthracycline-containing chemotherapy.

Methods — Using administrative data sets, we conducted a population-based cohort study of people >65 years of age with treated diabetes and no prior heart failure (HF) who received anthracyclines between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019. After estimating propensity scores for SGLT2i use, the average treatment effects for the treated weights were used to reduce baseline differences between SGLT2i-exposed and -unexposed controls. The outcomes were hospitalization for HF, incident HF diagnoses (in- or out-of-hospital), and documentation of any CVD in future hospitalizations. Death was treated as a competing risk. Cause-specific HRs for each outcome were determined for SGLT2i-treated people relative to unexposed controls.

Results — We studied 933 patients (median age 71.0 years, 62.2% female), 99 of whom were SGLT2i treated. During a median follow-up of 1.6 years, there were 31 hospitalizations for HF (0 in the SGLT2i group), 93 new HF diagnoses, and 74 hospitalizations with documented CVD. Relative to controls, SGLT2i exposure was associated with HR of 0 for HF hospitalization (P < 0.001) but no significant difference in incident HF diagnosis (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.23-1.31; P = 0.18) or CVD diagnosis (HR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.12-1.28; P = 0.12). There was no significant difference in mortality (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.36-1.11; P = 0.11).

Conclusions — SGLT2is may reduce the rate of HF hospitalization after anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. This hypothesis warrants further testing in randomized controlled trials.



Abdel-Qadir H, Carrasco R, Austin PC, Chen Y, Zhou L, Fang J, Su HMH, Lega IC, Kaul P, Neilan TG, Thavendiranathan P. JACC CardioOncol. 2023; 5(3):318-28. Epub 2023 May 2.

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