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Sex ratios at birth among second-generation mothers of South Asian ethnicity in Ontario, Canada: a retrospective population-based cohort study


Background — Son-biased sex ratios at birth (M:F), an extreme manifestation of son preference, are predominately found in East and South Asia. Studies have examined sex ratios among first-generation migrants from these regions, but few have examined second-generation descendants. Our objective was to determine whether son-biased sex ratios persist among second-generation mothers with South Asian ethnicity in Ontario, Canada.

Methodology — A surname algorithm identified a population-based cohort of mothers with South Asian ethnicity who gave birth in Ontario between 1993 and 2014 (N=59 659). Linking to official immigration data identified births to first-generation mothers (ie, immigrants). Births not to immigrants were designated as being to second-generation mothers (ie, born in Canada) (N=10 273). Sex ratios and 95% CI were stratified by the sex of previous live births and by whether it was preceded by ≥ 1 abortion for both first-generation and second-generation mothers.

Results — Among mothers with two previous daughters and at least one prior abortion since the second birth, both second-generation mothers and first-generation mothers had elevated sex ratios at the third birth (2.80 (95% CI 1.36 to 5.76) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.93 to 3.12), respectively). However, among mothers with no prior abortion, second-generation mothers had a normal sex ratio, while first-generation mothers gave birth to 142 boys for every 100 girls (95% CI 125 to 162 boys for every 100 girls).

Conclusion — Son preference persists among second-generation mothers of South Asian ethnicity. Culturally sensitive and community-driven gender equity interventions are needed.



Wanigaratne S, Uppal P, Bhangoo M, Januwalla A, Singal D, Urquia ML. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018; 72(11):1044-51. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

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