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Sex differences in the management and outcomes of Ontario patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction


Background — Sex differences in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) have not been well studied.

Methods — The researchers examined mortality and revascularization rates of 9750 patients with CS between 1992 and 2008 in the Ontario Myocardial Infarction Database. Men and women were compared in the entire cohort and in subgroups divided by age (aged < 75 years vs aged ≥ 75 years) and revascularization availability at presenting hospital. Logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted effect of sex on mortality and to determine predictors of revascularization.

Results — The incidence of CS was higher in women (3.7% of female vs 2.7% of male AMI patients; P < 0.001). Women with CS were older than men (mean age: 75.5 vs 71.1 years; P < 0.001) and less likely to present to revascularization-capable sites (16% vs 19.2%; P < 0.001). Unadjusted 1-year mortality rates were higher in women (80.3% vs 75.4%; P < 0.001). Women were less likely to be revascularized (12.6% vs 17.6%; P < 0.001) and less likely to be transferred when they presented to nonrevascularization sites (11.3% vs 14.2%; P < 0.001). The strongest predictor of revascularization was presentation to a revascularization-capable site (odds ratio, 17.69; P < 0.001). After regression adjustment, there were no significant differences in mortality or revascularization between the sexes.

Conclusion — Women with CS are older than men with CS and are less likely to present to revascularization-capable sites. This accounts for the lower unadjusted revascularization rates among women compared with men. However, there are no significant sex-based differences in adjusted mortality rates.



Abdel-Qadir HM, Ivanov J, Austin PC, Tu JV, Džavík V. Can J Cardiol. 2013; 29(6):691-6. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

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