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Risk of venous thromboembolism or hemorrhage among individuals with chronic kidney disease on prophylactic anticoagulant after hip or knee arthroplasty


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) confers a high risk of thrombosis and bleeding. However, little evidence exists regarding the optimal choice of postoperative thromboprophylaxis in these patients. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study among adults ≥66 years old with CKD undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty who had filled an outpatient prophylactic anticoagulant prescription between 2010 and 2020 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcomes of venous thrombosis (VTE) and hemorrhage were identified by validated algorithms using relevant diagnoses and billing codes. Overlap-weighted cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) on the 90-day risk of VTE and hemorrhage compared with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). A total of 27  645 patients were prescribed DOAC (N = 22  943) or LMWH (N = 4702) after arthroplasty. Rivaroxaban was the predominant DOAC (94.5%), while LMWH mainly included enoxaparin (67%) and dalteparin (31.5%). DOAC users had higher eGFRs, fewer co-morbidities, and surgery in more recent years compared to LMWH users. After weighing, DOAC (compared with LMWH) was associated with a lower risk of VTE (DOAC: 1.5% vs. LMWH: 2.1%, weighted hazard ratio [HR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59–0.94) and a higher risk of hemorrhage (DOAC: 1.3% vs. LMWH: 1.0%, weighted HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04–1.99). Additional analyses including a more stringent VTE defining algorithm, different eGFR cut-offs, and limiting to rivaroxaban and enoxaparin showed consistent findings. Among elderly adults with CKD, DOAC was associated with a lower VTE risk and a higher hemorrhage risk compared to LMWH following hip or knee arthroplasty.



Wang TF, Grubic N, Carrier M, Canney M, Delluc A, Hundemer GL, Knoll G, Lazo-Langner A, Massicotte-Azarniouch D, Tanuseputro P, Sood MM. Am J Hematol. 2023; Jun 21 [Epub ahead of print].

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