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Osteoporosis management in adults with schizophrenia following index hip fracture event: a 10-year population-based retrospective cohort study, Ontario, Canada


Little is known about the incidence of osteoporosis testing and treatment in individuals with schizophrenia, who may be more likely to fracture. Using competing risk models, we found that schizophrenia was associated with lower incidence of testing or treatment. Implications are for understanding barriers and solutions for this disadvantaged group.

Purpose — Evidence suggests that individuals with schizophrenia may be more likely to experience hip fractures than the general population; however, little is known about osteoporosis management in this disadvantaged subpopulation. Our study objective was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) testing and pharmacologic treatment in hip fracture patients with versus without schizophrenia.

Methods — This was a retrospective population-based cohort study leveraging health administrative databases, and individuals aged 66-105 years with hip fracture between fiscal years 2009 and 2018 in Ontario, Canada. Schizophrenia was ascertained using a validated algorithm. The outcome was a composite measure of (1) pharmacologic prescription for osteoporosis; or (2) a BMD test. Inferential analyses were conducted using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard regression, with mortality as the competing event.

Results — A total of 52,722 individuals aged 66 to 105 years who sustained an index hip fracture in Ontario during the study period were identified, of whom 1890 (3.6%) had schizophrenia. Hip fracture patients with vs without schizophrenia were more likely to be long-term care residents (44.3% vs. 18.1%; standardized difference, 0.59), frail (62.5% vs. 36.5%; standardized difference, 0.54) and without a primary care provider (9.2% vs. 4.8%; standardized difference, 0.18). In Fine-Gray models, schizophrenia was associated with a lower incidence of testing or treatment (0.795 (0.721, 0.877)).

Conclusions — In this population-based retrospective cohort study, a schizophrenia diagnosis among hip fracture patients was associated with a lower incidence of testing or treatment, after accounting for mortality, and several enabling and predisposing factors. Further research is required to investigate barriers to osteoporosis management in this disadvantaged population.



Ansari H, Jaglal S, Cheung AM, Jain R, Weldon J, Kurdyak P. Osteoporos Int. 2024; May 17 [ Epub ahead of print].

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