Individuals living in less walkable neighbourhoods up to 33 per cent more likely to have long-term cardiovascular risks: study
A study led by researchers from St. Michael’s Hospital of Unity Health Toronto and ICES found that people living in neighbourhoods considered to be the least walkable were up to 33 per cent more likely to have a high predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk compared to individuals living in the most walkable neighbourhoods.
The study, publishing on Oct. 31, 2019 in the Journal of the American Heart Association, is the first of its kind to analyze overall predicted risk over 10 years. The study analyzed nearly 45,000 individuals aged 40 to 74 living in 15 major urban centres in the Canadian province of Ontario.
In addition to a higher risk for cardiovascular disease, researchers also found that individuals living in the least walkable neighbourhoods had significantly higher blood pressure and higher odds of a prior diabetes diagnosis.
“The findings demonstrate that walkability is associated with clinically relevant differences in cardiovascular disease risk,” said Dr. Nicholas Howell, first author of the study and a PhD graduate in the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s. “From a public policy perspective, the findings support the idea that the benefits of walkable neighbourhoods could be significant enough to move the dial for individual health.”
Dr. Gillian Booth, lead author of the study and a scientist at St. Michael’s Hospital’s MAP Centre for Urban Health Solutions, said previous research has also shown that the way cities and communities are designed can have a profound impact on our health.
“This research demonstrates that a future cardiovascular risk can be predicted based on the walkability of your residence,” said Dr. Booth, who is also a senior adjunct scientist with ICES, the not-for-profit research institute where the Ontario data is held and analyzed.
“This research should be an encouragement for those living in less walkable neighbourhoods to source physical activities in other ways.”
The study also found that living in a less walkable neighbourhood was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking, suggesting that the differences in predicted cardiovascular risk may be partially offset because of higher levels of smoking in more walkable neighbourhoods.
About St. Michael's
St. Michael’s Hospital provides compassionate care to all who enter its doors. The hospital also provides outstanding medical education to future health care professionals in more than 27 academic disciplines. Critical care and trauma, heart disease, neurosurgery, diabetes, cancer care, care of the homeless and global health are among the Hospital’s recognized areas of expertise. Through the Keenan Research Centre and the Li Ka Shing International Healthcare Education Centre, which make up the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, research and education at St. Michael’s Hospital are recognized and make an impact around the world. Founded in 1892, the hospital is fully affiliated with the University of Toronto.
About Unity Health Toronto
Unity Health Toronto, comprised of Providence Healthcare, St. Joseph’s Health Centre and St. Michael’s Hospital, works to advance the health of everyone in our urban communities and beyond. Our health network serves patients, residents and clients across the full spectrum of care, spanning primary care, secondary community care, tertiary and quaternary care services to post-acute through rehabilitation, palliative care and long-term care, while investing in world-class research and education. For more information, visit www.unityhealth.to.
ICES is an independent, non-profit research institute that uses population-based health information to produce knowledge on a broad range of healthcare issues. Our unbiased evidence provides measures of health system performance, a clearer understanding of the shifting health care needs of Ontarians, and a stimulus for discussion of practical solutions to optimize scarce resources. ICES knowledge is highly regarded in Canada and abroad, and is widely used by government, hospitals, planners, and practitioners to make decisions about care delivery and to develop policy. In October 2018, the institute formerly known as the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences formally adopted the initialism ICES as its official name. For the latest ICES news, follow us on Twitter: @ICESOntario