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A health survey–based prediction equation for incident CKD

Noel AJ, Eddeen AB, Manuel D, Rhodes E, Tangri N, Hundemer G, Tanuseputro P, Knoll G, Mallick R, Sood MM. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2023; 18(1):28-35. Epub 2023 Jan 18. DOI:

Background — Prediction tools that incorporate self-reported health information could increase CKD awareness, identify modifiable lifestyle risk factors, and prevent disease. We developed and validated a survey-based prediction equation to identify individuals at risk for incident CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2), with and without a baseline eGFR.

Methods — A cohort of adults with an eGFR ≥70 ml/min per 1.73 m2 from Ontario, Canada, who completed a comprehensive general population health survey between 2000 and 2015 were included (n=22,200). Prediction equations included demographics (age, sex), comorbidities, lifestyle factors, diet, and mood. Models with and without baseline eGFR were derived and externally validated in the UK Biobank (n=15,522). New-onset CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) with ≤8 years of follow-up was the primary outcome.

Results — Among Ontario individuals (mean age, 55 years; 58% women; baseline eGFR, 95 (SD 15) ml/min per 1.73 m2), new-onset CKD occurred in 1981 (9%) during a median follow-up time of 4.2 years. The final models included lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol, physical activity) and comorbid illnesses (diabetes, hypertension, cancer). The model was discriminating in individuals with and without a baseline eGFR measure (5-year c-statistic with baseline eGFR: 83.5, 95% confidence interval [CI], 82.2 to 84.9; without: 81.0, 95% CI, 79.8 to 82.4) and well calibrated. In external validation, the 5-year c-statistic was 78.1 (95% CI, 74.2 to 82.0) and 66.0 (95% CI, 61.6 to 70.4), with and without baseline eGFR, respectively, and maintained calibration.

Conclusions — Self-reported lifestyle and health behavior information from health surveys may aid in predicting incident CKD.