Kidney disease among registered Métis citizens of Ontario: a population-based cohort study
Hayward JS, McArthur E, Nash DM, Sontrop JM, Russell SJ, Khan S, Walker JD, Nesrallah GE, Sood MM, Garg AX. Can J Kidney Health Dis. 2017; 4:2054358117703071. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
Background — Indigenous peoples in Canada have higher rates of kidney disease than non-Indigenous Canadians. However, little is known about the risk of kidney disease specifically in the Métis population in Canada.
Objective — To compare the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and incidence of acute kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease among registered Métis citizens in Ontario and a matched sample from the general Ontario population.
Design — Population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Métis Nation of Ontario’s Citizenship Registry and administrative databases.
Setting — Ontario, Canada; 2003-2013.
Patients — Ontario residents ≥18 years.
Measurements — Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and incidence of acute kidney injury and end-stage kidney disease. Secondary outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury included non-recovery of kidney function and mortality within 1 year of discharge.
Methods — Database codes and laboratory values were used to determine study outcomes. Métis citizens were matched (1:4) to Ontario residents on age, sex, and area of residence. The analysis included 12 229 registered Métis citizens and 48 916 adults from the general population.
Results — We found the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was slightly higher among Métis citizens compared with the general population (3.1% vs 2.6%, P = 0.002). The incidence of acute kidney injury was 1.2 per 1000 person-years in both Métis citizens and the general population (P = 0.54). Of those hospitalized with acute kidney injury, outcomes were similar among Métis citizens and the general population except 1-year mortality, which was higher for Métis citizens (24.5% vs 15.3%, P = 0.03). The incidence of end-stage kidney disease did not differ between groups (<3.0 per 10 000 person-years, P = 0.73).
Limitations — The Métis Nation of Ontario Citizenship Registry only captures about 20% of Métis people in Ontario. Administrative health care codes used to identify kidney disease are highly specific but have low sensitivity.
Conclusions — Rates of kidney disease were similar or slightly higher for Métis citizens in Ontario compared with the matched general population.
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Kidney and urinary tract disorders