Despite billions of dollars spent on targeted and population-wide strategies aimed at reducing human consumption of saturated fat and cholesterol, aspects of the diet-heart connection remain a source of debate. At least part of the uncertainty arises from a growing appreciation that the relationship between dietary habits, serum lipids, and atherosclerosis is more complex than was previously thought. While we wait for answers from clinical and basic research, what is to be done? This review examines evidence about clinical policies and population strategies for the primary prevention of coronary disease, with specific reference to diet and dyslipidemias. It also summarizes some current policies and offers conclusions about broad directions for further policy development.