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Factors associated with door-in to door-out delays among ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada


Background — Compared to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who present at centres with catheterization facilities, those transferred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have substantially longer door-in to door-out (DIDO) times, where DIDO is defined as the time interval from arrival at a non-PCI hospital, to transfer to a PCI hospital. We aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors to improve DIDO times in Ontario, Canada and to assess the impact of DIDO times on 30-day mortality.

Methods — A population-based, retrospective cohort study of 966 STEMI patients transferred for primary PCI in Ontario in 2012 was conducted. Baseline factors were examined across timely DIDO status. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine independent predictors of timely DIDO as well as the association between DIDO times and 30-day mortality.

Results — The median DIDO time was 55 min, with 20.1% of patients achieving the recommended DIDO benchmark of ≤30 min. Age (OR> 75 vs 18-55 0.30, 95% CI: 0.16-0.56), symptom-to-first medical contact (FMC) time (OR61-120mins vs < 60mins 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.90; OR>120mins vs < 60mins 0.53, 95% CI:0.35-0.81) and emergency medical services transport with a pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG) (OREMS transport + ECG vs self-transport 2.63, 95% CI:1.59-4.35) were the strongest predictors of timely DIDO. Patients with timely ECG were more likely to have recommended DIDO times (33.0% vs 12.3%; P < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of those who met the DIDO benchmark had timely FMC-to-balloon times (78.7% vs 27.4%; P < 0.001). Compared to patients with DIDO time ≤ 30 min, those with DIDO times > 90 min had significantly higher adjusted 30-day mortality rates (OR 2.82, 95% CI:1.10-7.19).

Conclusions — While benchmark DIDO times were still rarely achieved in the province, we identified several potentially modifiable factors in the STEMI system that might be targeted to improve DIDO times. Our findings that patients who received a pre-hospital ECG were still being transferred to non-PCI capable centres suggest strategies addressing this gap may improve patient outcomes.



Shi O, Khan AM, Rezai MR, Jackevicius CA, Cox J, Atzema CL, Ko DT, Stukel TA, Lambert LJ, Natarajan MK, Zheng ZJ, Tu JV. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2018; 18(1):204. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

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