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Estimating population-based incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and acute otitis media in children and adults in Ontario and British Columbia using health administrative data, 2005-2018: a Canadian Immunisation Research Network (CIRN) study

Nasreen S, Wang J, Sadarangani M, Kwong JC, Quach C, Crowcroft NS, Wilson SE, McGeer A, Morris SK, Kellner JD, Sander B, Kus JV, Hoang L, Marra F, Fadel SA. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2022; 9(1):e001218. Epub 2022 Jun 28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2022-001218


Background — There is a paucity of data on the burden of the full spectrum of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) from outpatient and inpatient settings across the age spectrum.

Methods — We conducted a population-based retrospective study in Ontario and British Columbia (BC), Canada, to estimate the incidence rate of CAP and AOM in children and adults over a 14-year period using health administrative databases. CAP and AOM cases were identified from outpatient physician consultation and hospitalisation data in both provinces, and from emergency department visit data in Ontario.

Results — During 2005–2018, Ontario had 3 607 124 CAP, 172 290 bacterial CAP, 7814 pneumococcal pneumonia, and 8 026 971 AOM cases. The incidence rate of CAP declined from 3077/100 000 in 2005 to 2604/100 000 in 2010 before increasing to 2843/100 000 in 2018; bacterial CAP incidence rate also declined from 178/100 000 in 2005 to 112/100 000 in 2010 before increasing to 149/100 000 in 2018. The incidence rate of AOM decreased from 4192/100 000 in 2005 to 3178/100 000 in 2018. BC had 970 455 CAP, 317 913 bacterial CAP, 35 287 pneumococcal pneumonia and 2 022 871 AOM cases. The incidence rate of CAP in BC decreased from 2214/100 000 in 2005 to 1964/100 000 in 2010 before increasing to 2176/100 000 in 2018; bacterial CAP incidence rate increased from 442/100 000 in 2005 to 981/100 000 in 2018. The incidence rate of AOM decreased from 3684/100 000 in 2005 to 2398/100 000 in 2018. The incidence rate of bacterial CAP increased with age in older adults (≥65 years) with the highest burden in the oldest cohort aged ≥85 years both before and after 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) programme in both provinces. Hospitalised pneumococcal pneumonia decreased slightly but non-hospitalised pneumococcal pneumonia increased in BC during PCV13 period. No consistent direct benefit of PCV13 on CAP was observed in the paediatric population.

Conclusions — There is a substantial burden of CAP and AOM in Ontario and BC. Indirect benefits from childhood PCV vaccination and polysaccharide vaccination of older adults have not substantially decreased the burden of pneumococcal pneumonia in older adults.

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