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Risk factors associated with long-term mortality and complications after thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair

Rocha RV, Lindsay TF, Nasir D, Lee DS, Austin PC, Chan J, Chung J, Forbes TL, Ouzounian M. J Vasc Surg. 2022; 75(4):1135-41.e3. Epub 2021 Oct 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.09.021


Objective — To determine the risk factors associated with late mortality or complications (Thoracoabdominal aortic Aneurysm Life-altering Events (TALE): composite of mortality, permanent paraplegia, permanent dialysis, and stroke) in patients undergoing endovascular or open thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair.

Methods — Population-based study of patients undergoing TAAA repair in Ontario, Canada, between 2006 – 2017. The association of baseline risk factors with mortality post repair and complications was examined with Cox hazards models with hospital-specific random effects. The survival of patients undergoing TAAA repair was compared to matched controls who were free from TAAA, matching on age, sex, area of residence, and average annual household income. Type of repair (endovascular vs open) was included in all models.

Results — We identified 664 adults (mean age 69.3 ± 10.6, 71% men) undergoing TAAA repair. At 5 and 8-years, survival was 55.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.8-60.1) and 44.6% (95% CI 40.4-49.6) for patients undergoing TAAA repair vs 85.6% (95% CI 83.9-87.1) and 76.3% (95% CI 73.8-78.8) for the control population, respectively ((HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.67-2.32, p<.01). In patients undergoing TAAA, freedom from TALE was 49.2% (95% CI 44.7-53.7) and 37.3% (95% CI 33.1- 42.4) at 5 and 8-years of follow-up, respectively. On multivariable analysis, risk factors associated with mortality during follow-up included older age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21 (per 5-year increase), 95%CI 1.13-1.28), peripheral artery disease (HR 1.46, 95%CI 1.03-2.09), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.03-2.43), congestive heart failure (HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.34-2.36), and urgent procedures (HR 2.27, 95%CI 1.74-3.00). A lower rate of death was observed in those with previous coronary revascularization (HR 0.63, 95%CI 0.41-0.96) and repair at high-volume institutions (>60 TAAA repairs during the study period) (HR 0.71, 95%CI 0.55-0.91). Older age, chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, and urgent procedures were associated with higher rate of TALE. The type of repair (endovascular or open) was not associated with mortality or TALE.

Conclusions — TAAA repair is associated with reduced long-term survival compared to the general population regardless of mode of treatment. Urgent/emergent repair was the most profound risk factor late adverse events. Type of repair (endovascular or open) was not a predictor for long-term death or complications. Previous coronary revascularization and having the procedure performed at a high-volume institution were associated with improved late outcomes in patients undergoing TAAA repair.

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