Background — Invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term probability of post-transplant IFI is poorly understood.
Methods — We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked administrative healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada to determine the incidence rate; 1-, 5- and 10-year cumulative probability of IFI; and post-IFI all-cause mortality in SOT recipients from 2002 to 2016. We also determined post-IFI, death-censored renal allograft failure.
Results — We included 9,326 SOT recipients (median follow-up: 5.35 years). Overall, the incidence of IFI was 8.3 per 1000 person-years. The 1-year cumulative probability of IFI was 7.4% for lung, 5.4% for heart, 1.8% for liver, 1.2% for kidney-pancreas, and 1.1% for kidney-only allograft recipients. Lung transplant recipients had the highest incidence rate and 10-year probability of IFI: 43.0 per 1000 person-years and 26.4%, respectively. The 1-year all-cause mortality rate after IFI was 34.3%. IFI significantly increased the risk of mortality in SOT recipients over the entire follow-up period (hazard ratio: 6.50, 95% CI: 5.69-7.42). The 1-year probability of death-censored renal allograft failure after IFI was 9.8%.
Conclusion — Long-term cumulative probability of IFI varies widely among SOT recipients. Lung transplantation was associated with the highest incidence of IFI with considerable 1-year all-cause mortality.