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Risk prediction scores for type 2 diabetes microvascular and cardiovascular complications derived and validated with real-world data from two provinces The DIabeteS COmplications (DISCO) Risk Scores


Objective — Existing tools to predict the risk of complications among people with type 2 diabetes poorly discriminate high- from low-risk patients. The objective of this study was to develop risk prediction scores for major type 2 diabetes complications using real-world clinical care data, and to externally validate these risk scores in a different jurisdiction.

Methods — Using healthcare administrative data and electronic medical records data, risk scores were derived using data from 25,088 people with type 2 diabetes from the Canadian province of Ontario, followed between 2002 and 2017. Scores were developed for major clinically-important microvascular events (treatment for retinopathy, foot ulcer, incident end-stage renal disease), CVD events (acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, amputation) and mortality (cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular, all-cause). They were then externally validated using the independent data of 11,416 people with type 2 diabetes from the province of Manitoba.

Results — The 10 derived risk scores had moderate to excellent discrimination in the independent validation cohort, ranging from 0.705 to 0.977. Their calibration to predict 5-year risk was excellent across most levels of predicted risk, albeit with some displaying underestimation at the highest levels of predicted risk.

Conclusions — The DIabeteS COmplications (DISCO) risk scores for major type 2 diabetes complications were derived and externally validated using contemporary real-world clinical data. As a result, they may be more accurate than other risk prediction scores derived using randomized trial data. The use of more accurate risk scores in clinical practice will help improve personalization of clinical care for patients with type 2 diabetes.



Shah BR, Austin PC, Ivers NM, Katz A, Singer A, Sirski M, Thiruchelvam D, Tu K. Can J Diabetes. 2023; Dec 29 [Epub ahead of print].

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