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Preconception SGLT2 or DPP4 inhibitor use and adverse pregnancy outcomes


Aims — To compare preconception use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2i) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4i) inhibitors to sulfonylurea agents, and associated peri-conceptional A1c concentration, and risk of pregnancy loss and congenital anomalies.

Methods — This population-based cohort study used administrative datasets for all of Ontario, Canada, and included women eligible for free medication coverage and who achieved a recognized pregnancy from April 2007-November 2021. Exposure was a SGLT2i, DPP4i or sulfonylurea (referent) dispensed at least 90 days preconception. Study outcomes included differences in periconceptional A1c; miscarriage, induced abortion, or stillbirth; and any congenital anomaly – the latter two outcomes assessed using propensity score overlap weighting.

Results — The mean (SD) periconceptional A1c was 8.1 % (2.0) among those prescribed any sulfonylurea, compared with 8.3 % (2.0) with a DPP4i and 7.8 % (1.6) with any SGLT2i. The risk of pregnancy loss was lowest among those exclusively prescribed a SGLT2i (relative risk [RR] 0.51, 95 % CI 0.22 to 0.91). Risk of a congenital anomaly at birth did not differ significantly comparing DPP4i or SGLT2i to sulfonylurea agents.

Conclusions — Neither SGLT2i nor DPP4i use before pregnancy was associated with a difference in A1c, or a higher risk of selective adverse outcomes, compared to sulfonylureas. Future larger studies are required, including assessment of medication use after conception, during the critical period of embryogenesis.



Ray JG, Harel Z, Gilbert RE, Wald R, Berger H, Park AL. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2023; 205:110946. Epub 2023 Oct 7.

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