Objective — To identify sex-specific predictors of inpatient rehabilitation outcomes among patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a population based perspective.
Design — Retrospective cohort study
Setting — Ontario, Canada
Participants — Patients in inpatient rehabilitation for a TBI within one year of acute care discharge between 2008/09 and 2011/12 (N=1,730, 70% male, 30% female).
Interventions — None
Main Outcome Measures — Inpatient rehabilitation length of stay, total Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) score, and motor and cognitive FIM™ ratings at discharge.
Results — Sex, as a covariate in multivariable linear regression models, was not a significant predictor of rehabilitation outcomes. While many of the predictors examined were similar across males and females, sex-specific multivariable models identified some predictors of rehabilitation outcome that are specific for males and females; mechanism of injury (p<.0001) was a significant predictor of functional outcome only among females while comorbidities (p<.0001) was a significant predictor for males only.
Conclusions — Predictors of outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation differed by sex, providing evidence for a sex-specific approach in planning and resource allocation for inpatient rehabilitation services for patients with TBI.
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Therapy and rehabilitation
Social determinants of health