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Venous thromboembolism in patients discharged from the emergency department with ankle fractures: a population-based cohort study


Study Objective — Temporary lower limb immobilization may be a risk for venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the 90-day incidence of venous thromboembolism among patients discharged from an emergency department (ED) with ankle fractures requiring temporary immobilization. Secondary objectives were to examine individual factors associated with venous thromboembolism in this population and to compare the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with ankle fractures against a priori-selected control groups.

Methods — This was a retrospective cohort study using province-wide health datasets from Ontario, Canada. We included patients aged 16 years and older discharged from an ED between 2013 and 2018 with closed ankle fractures requiring temporary immobilization. We estimated 90-day incidence of venous thromboembolism after ankle fracture. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate risk factors associated with venous thromboembolism, censoring at 90 days or death. Patients with ankle fractures were then propensity score matched to 2 control groups: patients discharged with injuries not requiring lower limb immobilization (ie, finger wounds and wrist fractures) to compare relative hazard of venous thromboembolism.

Results — There were 86,081 eligible patients with ankle fractures. Incidence of venous thromboembolism within 90 days was 1.3%. Factors associated with venous thromboembolism were older age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.39), venous thromboembolism or superficial venous thrombosis history (HR: 5.18; 95% CI: 4.33 to 6.20), recent hospital admission (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.68), recent nonankle fracture surgery (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.93), and subsequent surgery for ankle fracture (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.20). In the matched cohort, patients with ankle fractures had an increased hazard of venous thromboembolism compared to matched controls with finger wounds (HR: 6.31; 95% CI: 5.30 to 7.52) and wrist fractures (HR: 5.68; 95% CI: 4.71 to 6.85).

Conclusion — The 90-day incidence of venous thromboembolism among patients discharged from the ED with ankle fractures requiring immobilization was 1.3%. These patients had a 5.7- to 6.3-fold increased hazard compared to matched controls. Certain patients immobilized for ankle fractures are at higher risk of venous thromboembolism, and this should be recognized by emergency physicians.



Grewal K, Atzema CL, Sutradhar R, Everett K, Horner D, Thompson C, Theodoropoulos J, Borgundvaag B, McLeod SL, de Wit K. Ann Emerg Med. 2022; 79(1):35-47. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

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