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Trends in influenza vaccination in Canada, 1996/1997 to 2005


Objectives — This article reports recent trends in influenza vaccination rates in Canada, provides data on predictors of vaccination in Canada for 2005, and examines longer-term effects of Ontario's universal influenza immunization program on vaccine uptake.

Data Sources — Data are from the 1996/1997 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and the 2000/2001, 2003, and 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS).

Analytical Techniques — NPHS and CCHS data were used to estimate influenza vaccination rates of the population aged 12 or older. The Z test was used to assess differences between surveys, and the chi-squared test for trend was used to examine trends over time. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of vaccination and to compare the odds of being vaccinated in Ontario versus other provinces.

Main Results — Nationally, influenza vaccination rates rose from 15% in 1996/1997 to 27% in 2000/2001, stabilized between 2000/2001 and 2003, and increased further to 34% by 2005. Vaccination rates for most high-risk groups still fall short of national targets. Ontarians continue to be more likely to be vaccinated than are residents of any other province, while residents of two of the territories–Nunavut and the Northwest Territories–are even more likely to be vaccinated than are Ontarians.



Kwong JC, Rosella LC, Johansen H. Health Rep. 2007; 18(4):9-19.

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