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The effect of universal influenza immunization on antibiotic prescriptions: an ecological study


The Canadian province of Ontario introduced universal influenza immunization in 2000, offering free vaccines to the entire population.

The authors compared changes in rates of influenza‐associated respiratory antibiotic prescriptions before and after universal immunization in Ontario with corresponding changes in other provinces. Universal influenza immunization is associated with reduced influenza‐associated antibiotic prescriptions.



Kwong JC, Maaten S, Upshur RE, Patrick DM, Marra F. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49(5):750-6.

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