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Prescribing patterns for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex and M. xenopi pulmonary disease in Ontario, Canada, 2001–2013


Surveys suggest that clinicians diverge from guidelines when treating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (PD). To determine prescribing patterns, we conducted a cohort study of adults ≥66 years of age in Ontario, Canada, with MAC or Mycobacterium xenopi PD during 2001–2013. Using linked laboratory and health administrative databases, we studied the first treatment episode (≥60 continuous days of ≥1 of a macrolide, ethambutol, rifamycin, fluoroquinolone, linezolid, inhaled amikacin, or, for M. xenopi, isoniazid). Treatment was prescribed for 24% MAC and 15% of M. xenopi PD patients. Most commonly prescribed was the recommended combination of macrolide, ethambutol, and rifamycin, for 47% of MAC and 36% of M. xenopi PD patients. Among MAC PD patients, 20% received macrolide monotherapy and 33% received regimens associated with emergent macrolide resistance. Although the most commonly prescribed regimen was guidelines-recommended, many regimens prescribed for MAC PD were associated with emergent macrolide resistance.



Brode SK, Chung H, Campitelli MA, Kwong JC, Marchand-Austin A, Winthrop KL, Jamieson FB, Marras TK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019; 25(7):1271-80. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

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