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Informal regionalization of pediatric fracture care in the Greater Toronto Area: a retrospective cross-sectional study


Background — Operative management of pediatric fractures is an expected competency in the specialty of Orthopedic Surgery. However, specialized pediatric centres may be providing care for increasing numbers of patients with fractures previously treated at community hospitals. The primary objective of this study was to examine trends in presentation of children with fractures to a specialized pediatric centre.

Methods — We performed a detailed chart review to examine trends in presentation of children aged 14 years or less with supracondylar humerus or femur fractures to a specialized pediatric centre (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto) from anywhere in the Greater Toronto Area between Apr. 1, 2008, and Mar. 31, 2015. Consecutive patients admitted to hospital and requiring operative intervention for a supracondylar humerus or femur fracture were considered. We calculated changes in operation incidence rates per year using multivariable negative binomial regression models.

Results — A total of 945 children with supracondylar humerus fractures and 421 with femur fractures underwent operative intervention during the study period. The baseline characteristics of the 2 groups were similar irrespective of which year fixation occurred. The annual incidence rate of supracondylar humerus fractures increased from 108 to 169 (56.5%) over the study period, at an adjusted rate of 7.5% per year (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.072-1.079, p < 0.001). The annual incidence rate of femur fractures increased from 49 to 69 (40.8%), at an adjusted rate of 5.3% per year (adjusted IRR 1.053, 95% CI 1.044-1.062, p < 0.001). Significant increases were observed independent of fracture classification, stabilization method, whether patients were transferred from an outside hospital or presented directly, patient geographic location or the season in which the fracture occurred.

Interpretation — Adjusted annual incidence rates of supracondylar humerus and femur fractures increased significantly over the study period. Further work is needed to assess the clinical impact of informal regionalization of care and to determine whether the phenomenon occurs in other specialties.



Pincus D, Morrison S, Gargan MF, Camp MW. CMAJ Open. 2017; 5(2):E468-75.

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