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Derivation and external validation of a risk index for predicting acute kidney injury requiring kidney replacement therapy after noncardiac surgery


Importance — Severe acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious postoperative complication. A tool for predicting the risk of AKI requiring kidney replacement therapy (KRT) after major noncardiac surgery might assist with patient counseling and targeted use of measures to reduce this risk.

Objective — To derive and validate a predictive model for AKI requiring KRT after major noncardiac surgery.

Design, Setting, and Participants — In this prognostic study, 5 risk prediction models were derived and internally validated in a population-based cohort of adults without preexisting kidney failure who underwent noncardiac surgery in Alberta, Canada, between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013. The best performing model and corresponding risk index were externally validated in a population-based cohort of adults without preexisting kidney failure who underwent noncardiac surgery in Ontario, Canada, between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2019, to May 31, 2021.

Exposures — Demographic characteristics, surgery type, laboratory measures, and comorbidities before surgery.

Main Outcomes and Measures — Acute kidney injury requiring KRT within 14 days after surgery. Discrimination was assessed using the C statistic; calibration was assessed using calibration intercept and slope. Logistic recalibration was used to optimize model calibration in the external validation cohort.

Results — The derivation cohort included 92 114 patients (52.2% female; mean [SD] age, 62.3 [18.0] years), and the external validation cohort included 709 086 patients (50.8% female; mean [SD] age, 61.0 [16.0] years). A total of 529 patients (0.6%) developed postoperative AKI requiring KRT in the derivation cohort, and 2956 (0.4%) developed postoperative AKI requiring KRT in the external validation cohort. The following factors were consistently associated with the risk of AKI requiring KRT: younger age (40-69 years: odds ratio [OR], 2.07 [95% CI, 1.69-2.53]; <40 years: OR, 3.73 [95% CI, 2.61-5.33]), male sex (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.28-1.87), surgery type (colorectal: OR, 4.86 [95% CI, 3.28-7.18]; liver or pancreatic: OR, 6.46 [95% CI, 3.85-10.83]; other abdominal: OR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.66-2.89]; abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: OR, 19.34 [95% CI, 14.31-26.14]; other vascular: OR, 7.30 [95% CI, 5.48-9.73]; thoracic: OR, 3.41 [95% CI, 2.07-5.59]), lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.97-0.97 per 1 mL/min/1.73 m2 increase), lower hemoglobin concentration (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-0.99 per 0.1 g/dL increase), albuminuria (mild: OR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.52-2.33]; heavy: OR, 3.74 [95% CI, 2.98-4.69]), history of myocardial infarction (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.32-2.03), and liver disease (mild: OR, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.66-3.24]; moderate or severe: OR, 4.96 [95% CI, 3.58-6.85]). In external validation, a final model including these variables showed excellent discrimination (C statistic, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.96), with sensitivity of 21.2%, specificity of 99.9%, positive predictive value of 38.1%, and negative predictive value of 99.7% at a predicted risk threshold of 10% or greater.

Conclusions and Relevance — The findings suggest that this risk model can predict AKI requiring KRT after noncardiac surgery using routine preoperative data. The model may be feasible for implementation in clinical perioperative risk stratification for severe AKI.



Wilson TA, de Koning L, Quinn RR, Zarnke KB, McArthur E, Iskander C, Roshanov PS, Garg AX, Hemmelgarn BR, Pannu N, James MT. JAMA Netw Open. 2021; 4(8):e2121901. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

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