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A quasi-experimental evaluation of the association between implementation of Quality-Based Procedures funding for hip fractures and improvements in processes and outcomes for hip fracture patients in Ontario: an interrupted time series analysis


Purpose — In 2013, Ontario introduced a patient-based funding model for hip fracture care (Quality-Based Procedures [QBP]). The association of QBP implementation with changes in processes and outcomes has not been evaluated.

Methods — We conducted a quasi-experimental study using linked health data for adult hip fractures as an interrupted time series. The pre-QBP period was from 2008 to 2012 and the post-QBP period was from 2014 to 2018; 2013 was excluded as a wash-in period. We used segmented regression analyses to estimate the association of QBP implementation with changes in processes (surgery in less than two days from admission, use of echocardiography, use of nerve blocks, and provision of geriatric care) and clinical outcomes (90-day mortality, 90-day readmissions, length of stay, and days alive at home). We estimated the immediate (level) change, trend (slope) postimplementation, and total counterfactual differences. Sensitivity analyses included case-mix adjustment and stratification by hospital type and procedure.

Results — We identified 45,500 patients in the pre-QBP period and 41,256 patients in the post-QBP period. There was a significant total counterfactual increase in the use of nerve blocks (11.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2 to 16.0) and a decrease in the use of echocardiography (−2.5%; 95% CI, −3.7 to −1.3) after QBP implementation. The implementation of QBP was not associated with a clinically or statistically meaningful change in 90-day mortality, 90-day readmission, length of stay, or number of days alive at home.

Conclusion — Evaluation of the QBP program is crucial to inform ongoing and future changes to policy and funding for hip fracture care. The introduction of the QBP Hip Fracture program, supported by evidence-based recommendations, was associated with improved application of some evidence-based processes of care but no changes in clinical outcomes. There is a need for ongoing development and evaluation of funding models to identify optimal strategies to improve the value and outcomes of hip fracture care.



Zhang HY, Ramlogan RR, Talarico R, Grammatopolous G, Papp S, McIsaac DI. Can J Anaesth. 2024; Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print].

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