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Uptake of re-resection in T1 bladder cancer: an interrupted population-based time series analysis among different groups of surgeons

Wettstein MS, Baxter NN, Sutradhar R, Mamdani M, Song P, Qadri SR, Li K, Liu N, van der Kwast T, Hermanns T, Kulkarni GS. Urol Oncol. 2022; 40(4):165.e1-e8. Epub 2022 Feb 5. DOI:

Introduction — A second transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) within 2 – 6 weeks after initial TURBT is thought to have diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic benefits in T1 bladder cancer (BC). However, little is known about the real-world uptake of this guideline-endorsed intervention. We aimed (1) to measure re-resection rates over time, (2) to investigate if a guideline revision (April 2008) explicitly endorsing re-resection within 2 – 6 weeks in all T1 BC patients led to an increase in re-resection rates, and (3) to investigate the uptake among different groups of surgeons.

Methodology — Province-wide BC pathology reports (January 2001 to December 2015; Ontario, Canada) were linked with health administrative data to (1) identify primary cases of T1 BC and to (2) ascertain whether these patients received re-resection. The resulting patients were then aggregated into quarterly time series and investigated by descriptive analysis, interventional autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) modeling, and Poisson regression analysis.

Results — A cohort of 7,373 patients was aggregated into a time series. We observed a linear increase in re-resection rates from 8.4% in 2001 to 28.3% in 2015. An actual effect of the guideline revision in April 2008 on re-resection rates could not be detected (P = 0.41). However, we observed a rather heterogeneous uptake behavior among different groups of surgeons. Specifically, female surgeons, more junior surgeons, high-volume surgeons, Canadian graduates, and surgeons without an academic affiliation were all independently more likely to re-resect their patients (all P-values < 0.05 in adjusted analysis).

Conclusions — Re-resection rates in primary T1 BC increased between 2001 and 2015 in the province of Ontario regardless of the guideline revision in April 2008. Our study demonstrates that the uptake of this guideline-endorsed intervention varies among different groups of surgeons and therefore warrants further research to identify barriers to change that can be addressed by tailored interventions.