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Prescribing patterns for treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex and M. xenopi pulmonary disease in Ontario, Canada, 2001–2013

Brode SK, Chung H, Campitelli MA, Kwong JC, Marchand-Austin A, Winthrop KL, Jamieson FB, Marras TK. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019; 25(7):1271-80. Epub 2019 Jul 1. DOI:

Surveys suggest that clinicians diverge from guidelines when treating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (PD). To determine prescribing patterns, we conducted a cohort study of adults ≥66 years of age in Ontario, Canada, with MAC or Mycobacterium xenopi PD during 2001–2013. Using linked laboratory and health administrative databases, we studied the first treatment episode (≥60 continuous days of ≥1 of a macrolide, ethambutol, rifamycin, fluoroquinolone, linezolid, inhaled amikacin, or, for M. xenopi, isoniazid). Treatment was prescribed for 24% MAC and 15% of M. xenopi PD patients. Most commonly prescribed was the recommended combination of macrolide, ethambutol, and rifamycin, for 47% of MAC and 36% of M. xenopi PD patients. Among MAC PD patients, 20% received macrolide monotherapy and 33% received regimens associated with emergent macrolide resistance. Although the most commonly prescribed regimen was guidelines-recommended, many regimens prescribed for MAC PD were associated with emergent macrolide resistance.

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