Type 2 diabetes, medication-induced diabetes, and monogenic diabetes in Canadian children: a prospective national surveillance study
Amed S, Dean HJ, Panagiotopoulos C, Sellers EA, Hadjiyanakis S, Laubscher TA, Dannenbaum D, Shah BR, Booth GL, Hamilton JK. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33(4):786-91. Epub 2010 Jan 12.
Objective — To determine in Canadian children aged <18 years the 1) incidence of type 2 diabetes, medication-induced diabetes, and monogenic diabetes; 2) clinical features of type 2 diabetes; and 3) coexisting morbidity associated with type 2 diabetes at diagnosis.
Research Design and Methods — This Canadian prospective national surveillance study involved a network of pediatricians, pediatric endocrinologists, family physicians, and adult endocrinologists. Incidence rates were calculated using Canadian Census population data. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate demographic and clinical features.
Results — From a population of 7.3 million children, 345 cases of non-type 1 diabetes were reported. The observed minimum incidence rates of type 2, medication-induced, and monogenic diabetes were 1.54, 0.4, and 0.2 cases per 100,000 children aged <18 years per year, respectively. On average, children with type 2 diabetes were aged 13.7 years and 8% (19 of 227) presented before 10 years. Ethnic minorities were overrepresented, but 25% (57 of 227) of children with type 2 diabetes were Caucasian. Of children with type 2 diabetes, 95% (206 of 216) were obese and 37% (43 of 115) had at least one comorbidity at diagnosis.
Conclusions — This is the first prospective national surveillance study in Canada to report the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and also the first in the world to report the incidence of medication-induced and monogenic diabetes. Rates of type 2 diabetes were higher than expected with important regional variation. These results support recommendations that screening for comorbidity should occur at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
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