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Lung cancer inequalities in stage of diagnosis in Ontario, Canada

Lofters AK, Gatov E, Lu H, Baxter NN, Guilcher SJT, Kopp A, Vahabi M, Datta GD. Curr Oncol. 2021; 28(3):1946-56. 2021; May 23 [Epub ahead of print]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28030181


Lung cancer is the most common cancer and cause of cancer death in Canada, with approximately 50% of cases diagnosed at stage IV. Sociodemographic inequalities in lung cancer diagnosis have been documented, but it is not known if inequalities exist with respect to immigration status. We used multiple linked health-administrative databases to create a cohort of Ontarians 40–105 years of age who were diagnosed with an incident lung cancer between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2017. We used modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors to examine the risk of diagnosis at late vs. early stage among immigrants compared to long-term residents. The fully adjusted model included age, sex, neighborhood-area income quintile, number of Aggregated Diagnosis Group (ADG) comorbidities, cancer type, number of prior primary care visits, and continuity of care. Approximately 62% of 38,788 people with an incident lung cancer from 2012 to 2017 were diagnosed at a late stage. Immigrants to the province were no more likely to have a late-stage diagnosis than long-term residents (63.5% vs. 62.0%, relative risk (RR): 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.04), adjusted relative risk (ARR): 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99–1.05)). However, in fully adjusted models, people with more comorbidities were less likely to have a late-stage diagnosis (adjusted relative risk (ARR): 0.82 (95% CI: 0.80–0.84) for those with 10+ vs. 0–5 ADGs). Compared to adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma was more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage (ARR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.27–1.31), and squamous cell (ARR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.87–0.91) and other lung cancers (ARR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91–0.94) were more likely to be diagnosed at an early stage. Men were also slightly more likely to have late-stage diagnosis in the fully adjusted model (ARR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05–1.08). Lung cancer in Ontario is a high-fatality cancer that is frequently diagnosed at a late stage. Having fewer comorbidities and being diagnosed with small cell carcinoma was associated with a late-stage diagnosis. The former group may have less health system contact, and the latter group has the lung cancer type most closely associated with smoking. As lung cancer screening programs start to be implemented across Canada, targeted outreach to men and to smokers, increasing awareness about screening, and connecting every Canadian with primary care should be system priorities.

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