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Derivation and validation of a two-variable index to predict 30-day outcomes following heart failure hospitalization

Averbuch T, Lee SF, Mamas MA, Oz UE, Perez R, Connolly SJ, Ko DT, Van Spall HGC. ESC Heart Fail. 2021; 8(4):2690-97. Epub 2021 May 1. DOI:

Background — The LACE index-length of stay (L), acuity (A), Charlson co-morbidities (C), and emergent visits (E)-predicts 30-day outcomes following heart failure (HF) hospitalization but is complex to score. A simpler LE index (length of stay and emergent visits) could offer a practical advantage in point-of-care risk prediction.

Methods and Results — This was a sub-study of the patient-centred care transitions in HF (PACT-HF) multicentre trial. The derivation cohort comprised patients hospitalized for HF, enrolled in the trial, and followed prospectively. External validation was performed retrospectively in a cohort of patients hospitalized for HF. We used log-binomial regression models with LACE or LE as the predictor and either 30-day composite all-cause readmission or death or 30-day all-cause readmission as the outcomes, adjusting only for post-discharge services. There were 1985 patients (mean [SD] age 78.1 [12.1] years) in the derivation cohort and 378 (mean [SD] age 73.1 [13.2] years) in the validation cohort. Increments in the LACE and LE indices were associated with 17% (RR 1.17; 95% CI 1.12, 1.21; C-statistic 0.64) and 21% (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15, 1.26; C-statistic 0.63) increases, respectively, in 30-day composite all-cause readmission or death; and 16% (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.11, 1.20; C-statistic 0.64) and 18% (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.13, 1.24; C-statistic 0.62) increases, respectively, in 30-day all-cause readmission. The LE index provided better risk discrimination for the 30-day outcomes than did the LACE index in the external validation cohort.

Conclusions — The LE index predicts 30-day outcomes following HF hospitalization with similar or better performance than the more complex LACE index.

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