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Prepregnancy diabetes and perinatal mental illness: a population-based latent class analysis

Brown HK, Cairncross ZF, Lipscombe LL, Wilton AS, Dennis CL, Ray JG, Guttmann A, Vigod SN. Am J Epidemiol. 2020; 189(6):573-82. Epub 2019 Nov 12. DOI:

We examined the risk of any perinatal mental illness associated with prepregnancy diabetes and identified how diabetes duration, complexity, and intensity of care affect this risk. We performed a population-based study of women aged 15–49 years with (n = 14,186) and without (n = 843,818) prepregnancy diabetes who had a singleton livebirth (Ontario, Canada, 2005–2015) and no recent mental illness. Modified Poisson regression estimated perinatal mental illness risk between conception and 1 year postpartum in women with versus without diabetes and in diabetes groups, defined by a latent class analysis of diabetes duration, complexity, and intensity-of-care variables, versus women without diabetes. Women with diabetes were more likely than those without to develop perinatal mental illness (18.1% vs. 16.0%; adjusted relative risk = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.15). Latent classes of women with diabetes were: uncomplicated and not receiving regular care (59.7%); complicated, with longstanding diabetes, and receiving regular care (16.4%); and recently diagnosed, with comorbidities, and receiving regular care (23.9%). Perinatal mental illness risk was elevated in all classes versus women without diabetes (adjusted relative risks: 1.09–1.12), but results for class 2 were nonsignificant after adjustment. Women with diabetes could benefit from preconception and perinatal strategies to reduce their mental illness risk.