To compare outcomes following psychiatric hospitalization between people with and without HIV. Population-based study of people with (n = 1,089) and without (n = 280,888) HIV who were hospitalized for psychiatric illness between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2014. Overall, 9 (0.8%) people with HIV died within 30 days of discharge, compared with 3710 (1.3%) HIV-negative individuals. Following multivariable adjustment, there was no difference in the risk of readmission or emergency department (ED) visits for psychiatric illness in the 90 days following discharge. Conversely, people with HIV were at higher risk of ED visits for substance use disorders and less likely to receive psychiatry follow-up during this period. HIV is associated with ED use for substance use disorders and less psychiatry follow-up within 90 days of hospital discharge for psychiatric illness. Interventions facilitating continuity of care following discharge are warranted.