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Comparative trends in incident fracture rates for all long-term care and community dwelling seniors in Ontario, Canada, 2002-2012

Papaioannou A, Kennedy CC, Ioannidis G, Cameron C, Croxford R, Adachi JD, Mursleen S, Jaglal S. Osteoporos Int. 2016; 27(3):887-97. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

In this population-based study, we compared incident fracture rates in long-term care (LTC) versus community seniors between 2002 and 2012. Hip fracture rates declined more rapidly in LTC than in the community. An excess burden of fractures occurred in LTC for hip, pelvis, and humerus fractures in men and hip fractures only in women.

Introduction — This study compares trends in incident fracture rates between long-term care (LTC) and community-dwelling seniors ≥65 years, 2002-2012.

Methods — This is a population-based cohort study using administrative data. Measurements were age/sex-adjusted incident fracture rates and rate ratios (RR) and annual percent change (APC).

Results — Over 11 years, hip fracture rates had a marked decline occurring more rapidly in LTC (APC, -3.49 (95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.97, -3.01)) compared with the community (APC, -2.93 (95 % CI, -3.28, -2.57); p < 0.05 for difference in slopes). Humerus and wrist fracture rates decreased; however, an opposite trend occurred for pelvis and spine fractures with rates increasing over time in both cohorts (all APCs, p < 0.05). In 2012, incident hip fracture rates were higher in LTC than the community (RRs: women, 1.55 (95 % CI, 1.45, 1.67); men, 2.18 (95 % CI, 1.93, 2.47)). Higher rates of pelvis (RR, 1.48 (95 % CI, 1.22, 1.80)) and humerus (RR, 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.07, 1.84)) fractures were observed in LTC men, not women. In women, wrist (RR, 0.76 (95 % CI, 0.71, 0.81)) and spine (RR, 0.52 (95 % CI, 0.45, 0.61)) fracture rates were lower in LTC than the community; in men, spine (RR, 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.57, 0.98) but not wrist fracture (RR, 0.91 (95 % CI, 0.67, 1.23)) rates were significantly lower in LTC than the community.

Conclusion — Previous studies in the community have shown declining hip fracture rates over time, also demonstrated in our study but at a more rapid rate in LTC. Rates of humerus and wrist fractures also declined. An excess burden of fractures in LTC occurred for hip fractures in women and for hip, pelvis, and humerus fractures in men.

Keywords: Long-term care Geriatrics and aging Hip fractures