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Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of acute kidney injury in older patients: a population-based cohort study

Antoniou T, Macdonald EM, Hollands S, Gomes T, Mamdani MM, Garg AX, Paterson JM, Juurlink DN. CMAJ Open. 2015; 3(2):E166-71.


Background — Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) cause interstitial nephritis and are an underappreciated cause of acute kidney injury. The authors examined the risk of acute kidney injury and acute interstitial nephritis in a large population of older patients receiving PPIs.

Methods — The authors conducted a population-based study involving Ontario residents aged 66 years and older who initiated PPI therapy between Apr. 1, 2002, and Nov. 30, 2011. The authors used propensity score matching to establish a highly comparable reference group of control patients. The primary outcome was hospital admission with acute kidney injury within 120 days, and a secondary analysis examined acute interstitial nephritis. The authors used Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for differences between groups.

Results — The authors studied 290 592 individuals who commenced PPI therapy and an equal number of matched controls. The rates of acute kidney injury (13.49 v. 5.46 per 1000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio [HR] 2.52, 95% CI 2.27 to 2.79) and acute interstitial nephritis (0.32 versus 0.11 per 1000 person-years; HR 3.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 6.14) were higher among patients given PPIs than among controls.

Interpretation — In the study population of older adults, those who started PPI therapy had an increased risk of acute kidney injury and acute interstitial nephritis. These are potentially reversible conditions that may not be readily attributed to drug treatment. Clinicians should appreciate the risk of acute interstitial nephritis during treatment with PPIs, monitor patients appropriately and discourage the indiscriminate use of these drugs.

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Keywords: Kidney and urinary tract disorders Drug therapy Geriatrics and aging

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