Presentation blood glucose and death, hospitalization, and future diabetes risk in patients with acute heart failure syndromes
Sud M, Wang X, Austin PC, Lipscombe LL,Newton GE, Tu JV, Vasan RS, Lee DS. Eur Heart J. 2015; 36(15):924-31. Epub 2015 Jan 8.
Purpose — The prognostic implications of blood glucose on a wide range of outcomes including early mortality, hospitalizations, and incident diabetes diagnoses have not been fully elucidated in acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS).
Methods — In a population-based cohort of 16 524 AHFS patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) in Ontario, Canada between 2004 and 2007, we performed a competing risk analysis for 30-day mortality, new diabetes diagnoses, and hospitalization outcomes. Presentation blood glucose concentrations were categorized as follows: 3.9–6.1 [referent], >6.1–7.8, >7.8–9.4, >9.4–11.1, and >11.1 mmol/L.
Results — Among AHFS patients without diabetes presenting to the ED(n = 9275), blood glucose.6.1 mmol/L (n = 5252, 56.6%) was associated with increased risks of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) range: 1.26 (95% CI 1.05–1.50) to 1.50 (95% CI 1.11–2.02)], and cardiovascular death [HR range: 1.28 (95% CI 1.03–1.59) to 1.64 (95% CI 1.16–2.33)]. Among AHFS patients with diabetes (n = 7249), presenting blood glucose >11.1 mmol/L (n = 2286, 31.5%) was associated with increased risks of all-cause death (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10–2.00) and diabetes-related hospitalizations (HR 1.39, 95% CI; 1.20–1.61). Presentation blood glucose >9.4 mmol/L was associated with increased risks of hospitalization for HF or cardiovascular causes [HR range: 1.09 (95% CI 1.02–1.17) to 1.15 (95% CI 1.07–1.24)] in all patients.With higher presentation blood glucose, the risk of incident diabetes diagnosis increased, with adjusted HRs of 1.61 (>6.1–7.8 mmol/L) to 3.61 (>11.1 mmol/L) among those without the condition at baseline (all P < 0.001).
Conclusions — Mildly elevated presentation blood glucose was associated with early death, future diabetes, and hospitalizations for diabetes, HF, and cardiovascular causes among patients with AHFS.
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