Maternal placental syndromes among women living with HIV in Ontario: a population-based study
Ng R, Macdonald, EM, Yudin MH, Bayoumi AM, Loutfy MR, Raboud J, Masinde K, Tharao WE, Brophy J, Glazier RH, Antoniou T. CMAJ Open. 2015; 3(4):E360-5.
Background — Maternal placental syndromes are associated with adverse fetal outcomes and maternal cardiovascular disease. However, whether HIV infection increases the risk of maternal placental syndromes is unknown. Our objective was to compare the risk of maternal placental syndromes between women living with and without HIV infection in Ontario.
Methods — We conducted a population-based study using health administrative data from Ontario. We identified all pregnancies resulting in a live birth between Apr. 1, 2002, and Mar. 31, 2011; we identified women living with HIV using a validated case-finding algorithm. Our primary composite outcome was maternal placental syndromes, defined as a diagnosis of preeclampsia, eclampsia, placental abruption or placental infarction. We used generalized estimating equations with a logit link function to derive adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HIV infection and maternal placental syndromes.
Results — Data from 1 132 871 pregnancies were available for analysis; 634 (0.06%) of the pregnancies were in women living with HIV. After multivariable adjustment, we found no difference in the risk of maternal placental syndromes between women living with HIV and those without HIV infection (5.8% v. 5.6%; AOR 0.85 [95% CI 0.59-1.21]). An increased risk of maternal placental syndromes was associated with pre-existing diabetes (AOR 1.47 [95% CI 1.39-1.54]), pre-existing hypertension (AOR 4.28 [95% CI 4.15-4.42]) and chronic kidney disease (AOR 1.83 [95% CI 1.61-2.08]).
Interpretation — Women with HIV are not at increased risk of maternal placental syndromes. Our results underscore the importance of optimizing the management of comorbid illness associated with maternal placental syndromes during the prenatal period for all women, irrespective of HIV status.
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