Background — Despite existing research on outcomes of cardiac care in Canada, little is known about Canada-wide trends and interprovincial differences in outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Objectives — To examine Canadian trends in rates of in-hospital mortality and same-admission coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) after PCI and to compare provincial risk-adjusted in-hospital death and same-admission CABG rates.
Methods — Hospital discharge abstract data were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information and were used to identify cohorts of patients who underwent PCI in eight provinces in fiscal years 1992/93 through 2000/01. Crude data from Quebec hospitals were available for calendar years 1998 and 1999. Logistic regression modelling was used to calculate risk-adjusted in-hospital death and same-admission CABG rates by year and province.
Results — A total of 127,103 PCI cases performed in 23 hospitals across eight provinces were examined, with an overall unadjusted death rate of 1.4% and an overall unadjusted CABG rate of 1.6%. A national trend of stable in-hospital mortality rates was observed with a risk-adjusted death rate of 1.4% in 1992/93 versus 1.4% in 2000/01. An overall decline was seen in rates of same-admission CABG with a risk-adjusted rate of 2.7% in 1992/93 versus 0.9% in 2000/01 (relative decrease 67%, P<0.01). New Brunswick, Manitoba and British Columbia achieved overall declines in risk-adjusted death rates over the study period, while the other provinces experienced a slight increase (Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Alberta and Saskatchewan). All provinces displayed a similar decline in risk-adjusted same-admission CABG rates post-PCI.
Interpretation — Risk-adjusted rates of in-hospital death after PCI in Canada have remained stable over nine years, while risk-adjusted rates of same-admission CABG have decreased. The presence of interprovincial differences in risk-adjusted outcomes raises the possibility of variable quality of care for patients undergoing PCI across the Canadian provinces.